It’s an exceptional day to examine the potential health benefits of bitter leaf soup.
What is bitter leaf soup?
Bitter leaf soup, also known as Ofe Onugbu in the Igbo language, is a traditional soup from Nigeria.
It’s named after the main ingredient, bitter leaf, which is scientifically known as Vernonia amygdalina.
Despite their name, the leaves are typically washed or boiled to reduce their natural bitterness.
Here is a basic recipe for bitter leaf soup:
- 1-2 handfuls of bitter leaves or dried bitter leaves
- 500g of assorted meats (beef, goat, tripe, etc.)
- Dry fish and stockfish
- Ogiri Igbo (traditional seasoning)
- 1 tablespoon of ground crayfish
- 3 tablespoons of palm oil
- 1-2 bouillon cubes
- Salt and pepper to taste
- Cocoyam paste (as a thickener), typically about 8 small corms
- Boil your assorted meats with seasoning until they’re tender. Some like to use a pressure cooker to speed up the process.
- Prepare your cocoyam by peeling, washing, and boiling them until soft, then pound or blend to form a smooth paste.
- If you’re using fresh bitter leaves, wash them to reduce the bitterness. If you’re using dried bitter leaves, soak and rinse them.
- Add dry fish and stockfish to your pot of boiled meats; add the ground crayfish, bouillon cubes, pepper, and ogiri Igbo.
- Add the cocoyam paste in small lumps, then the palm oil. Cover the pot and leave to boil until all the cocoyam lumps have dissolved. You can add more water if you feel the soup is too thick.
- Now add the bitter leaves or any other leaf you’re using. Cover the pot and leave to simmer for 10 minutes.
- Add salt to taste, simmer for a few more minutes and then turn off the heat.
This recipe can be adjusted to taste and preference, with various additional ingredients used in different versions.
Remember that bitter leaf soup is typically served with fufu or another traditional staple food like pounded yam or garri.
Here’s a list of the potential health benefits of bitter leaf soup:
- Loaded With Dietary Fiber
- Abundant In Essential Vitamins And Minerals
- Possesses Antioxidant Qualities
- Assists In Regulating Blood Sugar Levels
- Offers Anti-Inflammatory Benefits
- Exhibits Antimicrobial Features
- Could Aid In Reducing Cholesterol Levels
- Could Boost Immune Health
- Promotes Weight Management
- May Have Antimalarial Effects
- May Enhance Skin Health
Please keep reading if you want to learn more.
1. High In Fiber
Dietary fiber is an important part of a balanced diet, and it offers a host of health benefits.
When it comes to bitter leaf soup, the bitter leaves themselves contain a significant amount of dietary fiber.
Consuming foods that are high in fiber has the following advantages:
Fiber adds bulk to your diet, aiding the movement of food through the digestive tract, which can help prevent constipation and promote regular bowel movements.
This can contribute to overall digestive health.
Promotes A Healthy Gut
High-fiber foods like bitter leaves can help support a healthy gut microbiome.
Dietary fiber acts as a prebiotic, providing nourishment for beneficial gut bacteria.
A healthy gut microbiome is associated with improved digestion and a lower risk of certain diseases.
Foods high in dietary fiber tend to make you feel fuller faster, thereby reducing the overall amount of food you consume, which can be beneficial for weight management.
Maintains Bowel Health
A high-fiber diet may lower your risk of developing hemorrhoids and small pouches in your colon (diverticular disease).
Controls Blood Sugar Levels
Dietary fiber, particularly soluble fiber, can slow the absorption of sugar into your bloodstream and reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Lowers Cholesterol Levels
Soluble fiber can help lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad,” cholesterol levels.
Helps In Achieving Healthy Weight
High-fiber foods tend to be more filling, so you’re likely to eat less and stay satisfied longer, which can help with weight management.
Despite the clear benefits, many people do not get enough dietary fiber in their diet, so dishes like bitter leaf soup can be a good contribution towards meeting the recommended intake.
As always, it is important to consume a balanced diet with a variety of foods to meet all nutritional needs.
2. Rich In Vitamins And Minerals
The vitamins and minerals found in bitter leaf soup each have unique benefits for your health:
This vitamin is essential for maintaining healthy vision, supporting the immune system, and promoting growth and development.
It also plays a critical role in maintaining healthy skin and mucous membranes.
Often associated with immune function, this vitamin also plays a role in collagen production, which is important for skin, blood vessel, tendon, and ligament health.
It’s also a potent antioxidant, helping to protect your cells against damage from free radicals.
This vitamin acts primarily as an antioxidant, fighting off harmful free radicals that can damage cells and contribute to chronic disease.
It also plays a role in immune function and skin health.
This mineral is crucial for heart and muscle function.
It helps regulate heart rhythm and blood pressure and is important for the proper function of all cells, tissues, and organs in the human body.
Best known for its role in supporting bone health, calcium is also important for heart, muscle, and nerve function.
Let’s break these down further in the context of bitter leaf soup:
Bitter leaf itself is rich in vitamins A, C, and E and minerals like calcium and potassium, which contribute to the soup’s nutritional content.
A source of vitamin E and other antioxidants.
Assorted Meats And Fish
These ingredients contribute protein and various other nutrients, including B vitamins and minerals like iron and zinc.
This is a good source of vitamin B12, other B vitamins, and minerals like selenium and zinc.
Consuming bitter leaf soup as part of a balanced diet can contribute to your overall nutrient intake.
Remember, while the soup is nutritious, it’s important to enjoy it as part of a diverse diet that includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains to ensure you get a wide range of nutrients.
3. Antioxidant Properties
Antioxidants are compounds that help protect your body from oxidative stress, which is a type of damage to cells caused by free radicals.
Free radicals are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures.
Bitter leaves, like many other plants, contain various compounds that have antioxidant properties.
These can help neutralize free radicals, thereby reducing oxidative stress.
Here’s how this might impact your health:
Reduced Risk Of Chronic Diseases
High levels of oxidative stress have been linked to the development of various chronic diseases, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
By helping to neutralize free radicals, the antioxidants in bitter leaves could potentially help reduce the risk of these diseases.
Improved Heart Health
Oxidative stress can lead to inflammation and damage in the arteries, which can in turn lead to heart disease.
Antioxidants can help reduce this damage, potentially leading to improved heart health.
Some research suggests that antioxidants can help prevent the type of cell damage that leads to the development of cancer.
However, more research is needed to fully understand this potential benefit.
Improved Brain Health
Oxidative stress has been linked to the development of neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s disease.
Antioxidants can potentially help protect the brain from this type of damage.
By combating oxidative stress, antioxidants could help to slow the aging process, not only by helping to prevent the onset of age-related diseases but also by slowing the physical signs of aging.
Improved Eye Health
Certain antioxidants can help protect the eyes from age-related diseases like macular degeneration and cataracts.
It’s important to note that while the antioxidant content of bitter leaves could offer these potential health benefits, it’s not a substitute for a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.
To fully reap the benefits of antioxidants, you should consume a variety of antioxidant-rich foods and lead a healthy lifestyle that includes regular exercise, adequate sleep, and minimal stress.
4. Aids In Blood Sugar Control
There is evidence to suggest that bitter leaves may have a beneficial effect on blood sugar levels, which could be especially helpful for people with diabetes or those at risk for the condition.
Some compounds in bitter leaf may help increase the body’s sensitivity to insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar levels.
Increased insulin sensitivity allows the body to use glucose (sugar) more effectively, reducing the amount of sugar left in the bloodstream.
Some research suggests that bitter leaves may help slow the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in the gut.
This slower absorption rate prevents spikes in blood sugar after eating, providing a more steady energy release and maintaining more consistent blood sugar levels.
Beta Cell Function
Beta cells in the pancreas produce insulin.
Some evidence suggests that bitter leaf might help protect these cells from damage and support their function, which could potentially improve the body’s natural insulin production.
There’s also a link between body weight and blood sugar control, with obesity being a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
By promoting satiety and potentially aiding in weight management, bitter leaf soup might also indirectly contribute to improved blood sugar control.
Remember, though, that while adding bitter leaf soup to your diet could potentially help with blood sugar control, it’s not a standalone treatment for diabetes or any other condition affecting blood sugar.
It is still crucial to adhere to any treatment recommendations made by a medical professional, which may include taking medication, routinely checking blood sugar levels, and following a particular diet or exercise regimen.
It’s also important to inform your healthcare provider about any herbs or supplements you’re taking, as these can interact with medication.
5. Anti-Inflammatory Effects (My Favorite Potential Health Benefit Of Bitter Leaf Soup)
Chronic inflammation is believed to be at the root of many serious diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, and even certain types of cancer.
Anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, including bitter leaf, may help manage this inflammation and potentially lower the risk of these conditions.
The anti-inflammatory properties of bitter leaf come from its phytochemicals, which are natural bioactive compounds found in plants.
These phytochemicals include flavonoids, terpenoids, and other types of antioxidants, which have been found to have anti-inflammatory effects.
Let’s explore how these anti-inflammatory properties might impact your health:
Arthritis And Joint Health
Chronic inflammation is a characteristic of arthritis, causing pain and stiffness in the joints.
By reducing inflammation, the compounds in bitter leaf might help alleviate these symptoms.
Inflammation in the cardiovascular system can lead to heart disease.
The anti-inflammatory properties of bitter leaf might help protect against this inflammation, potentially reducing the risk of heart disease.
Inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are characterized by chronic inflammation in the digestive tract.
Bitter leaf might help manage this inflammation, potentially reducing symptoms and flares.
Inflammation in the respiratory system can exacerbate conditions like asthma.
By reducing this inflammation, bitter leaf might help manage respiratory conditions.
Inflammatory skin conditions like psoriasis and eczema could potentially be managed with the anti-inflammatory properties of bitter leaf.
Inflammation in the brain is linked to neurological conditions like Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
The anti-inflammatory properties of bitter leaf could potentially help protect against these conditions.
Although bitter leaf’s anti-inflammatory effects are encouraging, they shouldn’t take the place of any current treatments or medications unless a doctor specifically instructs you to.
It’s also important to maintain a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle for overall health.
📙 Bitter leaf and garlic may have anti-inflammatory properties as well. On this page, you can learn more about how it can benefit your health.
6. Antimicrobial Properties
Bitter leaf contains several bioactive compounds that have demonstrated antimicrobial properties, meaning they may inhibit the growth of certain bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
These properties are largely attributed to phytochemicals, natural compounds found in plants, including flavonoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids.
Here’s a deeper look at how the antimicrobial properties of bitter leaf might impact health:
Some studies suggest that bitter leaf extract may inhibit the growth of certain types of bacteria, including those that cause foodborne illnesses like Escherichia coli and Salmonella.
This might contribute to better gut health and general well-being.
While research in this area is not as extensive, some studies suggest that bitter leaf could potentially have antiviral effects.
However, more research is needed to understand these effects and how they might be applied to human health.
Bitter leaf may also have antifungal properties.
For instance, it could potentially inhibit the growth of Candida, a type of fungus that can cause infections in humans, particularly in people with compromised immune systems.
Some traditional medicinal practices use bitter leaves to treat parasitic infections.
For example, it has been used in some cultures to treat malaria, though scientific research is needed to confirm its effectiveness.
It’s important to note that while these potential antimicrobial effects are promising, bitter leaf is not a substitute for prescribed antibiotics or other treatments for microbial infections.
It’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you have or suspect you have an infection.
Additionally, more research is needed to fully understand the extent and mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of bitter leaf and how it could be harnessed for potential therapeutic uses.
Many of the existing studies have been conducted in laboratories, and human studies are needed to confirm these effects.
7. May Help Lower Cholesterol
Bitter leaf is believed to contain certain compounds that could have a beneficial impact on cholesterol levels, particularly “bad” LDL cholesterol.
High levels of LDL cholesterol can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaques build up in the arteries, narrowing them and potentially leading to heart disease or stroke.
Therefore, anything that can help reduce LDL cholesterol levels could potentially also reduce the risk of these serious conditions.
Here’s a more detailed look at how bitter leaf soup might impact cholesterol levels and heart health:
Reduction In LDL Cholesterol
Some studies suggest that bitter leaves can help reduce levels of LDL cholesterol.
This can be particularly beneficial for heart health since high levels of LDL cholesterol can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the arteries, contributing to heart disease.
Increase In HDL Cholesterol
At the same time, bitter leaves might help increase levels of “good” HDL cholesterol.
HDL cholesterol helps remove other forms of cholesterol from your bloodstream, potentially reducing the risk of heart disease.
The antioxidants in bitter leaf might also help protect the heart by reducing oxidative stress, which can contribute to heart disease.
Inflammation plays a role in many heart diseases.
Bitter leaf, due to its anti-inflammatory properties, may help reduce this inflammation, further promoting heart health.
Blood Pressure Management
Some research suggests that bitter leaves could potentially help reduce blood pressure, another risk factor for heart disease.
It’s important to note, however, that while these effects are promising, more research is needed, particularly in humans, to confirm their potential benefits.
Furthermore, bitter leaf should not be used as a replacement for medications or other interventions prescribed by a healthcare professional for the management of high cholesterol or heart disease.
It’s also crucial to follow a healthy, balanced diet and engage in regular physical activity for overall heart health.
8. May Support Immune Function
The protein content of ingredients such as fish and meat in bitter leaf soup can play a vital role in supporting immune health.
Proteins are fundamental to the body’s immune response, helping to form antibodies that are used to fight off infections and diseases.
The immune system produces antibodies, which are proteins, to identify and destroy harmful substances like bacteria and viruses.
Consuming adequate amounts of protein ensures that your body has the necessary building blocks to produce these crucial components of the immune response.
Cellular Repair And Growth
Proteins are also essential for the growth and repair of cells, including those of the immune system.
A sufficient protein intake can help ensure that the body is able to adequately repair and replenish these cells as needed.
Certain types of immune cells produce signaling proteins called cytokines that aid in the immune response.
Dietary protein helps support the production of these important molecules.
In cases of protein-energy malnutrition, the immune system is severely compromised, leading to an increased risk of infections.
Including protein-rich foods in the diet helps prevent this condition.
Aside from proteins, bitter leaf soup also provides other nutrients that can support immune function.
For instance, it contains vitamin A and vitamin C, both of which play a role in immune health.
Vitamin A is vital for maintaining the health of the skin and mucous membranes, the body’s first line of defense against pathogens, while vitamin C helps stimulate the production of white blood cells and acts as an antioxidant.
Remember, while the nutrients in bitter leaf soup can contribute to immune health, it’s essential to maintain a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle overall for optimal immune function.
This includes getting regular exercise, sufficient sleep, and managing stress levels.
It’s also crucial to keep in mind that diet alone can’t prevent or cure infections and diseases; if you’re sick, it’s important to consult a healthcare professional.
9. Helps With Weight Management
Bitter leaf soup could potentially support weight management for several reasons:
High In Fiber
Bitter leaf, as part of the soup, is rich in dietary fiber.
Fiber adds bulk to your diet and slows digestion, which can help you feel full longer after eating.
This prolonged feeling of satiety can lead to less frequent eating, which can help control calorie intake and potentially contribute to weight loss.
Low In Calories
Compared to other types of soups or meals that might be high in fats and sugars, bitter leaf soup can be relatively low in calories, especially if prepared with lean meats or fish and minimal added fats or oils.
This can make it a good choice for those who are monitoring their calorie intake.
Regulates Blood Sugar Levels
As previously mentioned, bitter leaf soup may help regulate blood sugar levels, which could indirectly aid in weight management.
When blood sugar levels spike and then crash, it can lead to feelings of hunger and increased food intake.
Rich In Nutrients
The soup is not only lower in calories but also packed with beneficial nutrients.
A nutrient-dense meal can fulfill your body’s nutritional needs without adding unnecessary calories, which is crucial in a balanced weight management plan.
Some studies suggest that bitter leaves can have a metabolism-boosting effect.
This means that it could potentially help your body burn more calories at rest, further supporting weight management.
However, it’s important to note that while including bitter leaf soup in your diet can contribute to a healthy weight, it’s not a magic solution for weight loss or maintenance.
Sustainable weight management involves a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods to ensure a broad range of nutrients, as well as regular physical activity, adequate sleep, and stress management.
It’s always recommended to seek advice from a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian before making any significant changes to your diet or lifestyle for weight management.
10. Potential Antimalarial Properties
Bitter leaf, scientifically known as Vernonia amygdalina, has been used traditionally in some African cultures for the treatment of malaria, a disease primarily spread by mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium parasites.
This belief is based on the plant’s purported antimalarial properties, which some preliminary research seems to support.
Here are a few points to consider when discussing the potential antimalarial properties of bitter leaf:
Bitter leaf contains a number of bioactive compounds, including sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids, and other phenolic compounds.
Some of these compounds have shown antimalarial activity in laboratory tests.
Inhibiting Parasite Growth
Preliminary research suggests that these compounds might work by inhibiting the growth of Plasmodium parasites, the organisms responsible for causing malaria.
However, the exact mechanism is not fully understood, and more research is needed.
The use of bitter leaf as an antimalarial agent is common in certain traditional medical practices, particularly in parts of Africa where both the plant and malaria are prevalent.
Despite promising preliminary studies, much more research is needed to confirm the antimalarial properties of bitter leaf.
Most of the existing studies are either in vitro (conducted in a lab, outside of a living organism) or in animal models, so human clinical trials are necessary to determine safety, efficacy, and optimal dosage.
Not A Standalone Treatment
It’s important to note that, while bitter leaf may have potential as a supplemental treatment, it should not replace conventional antimalarial medications.
Malaria is a serious disease that can be fatal if not treated properly.
Always follow the advice of healthcare professionals when dealing with malaria or other serious illnesses.
As such, while the potential antimalarial properties of bitter leaf are intriguing, it’s clear that more rigorous scientific investigation is necessary.
Until then, established antimalarial medications remain the most effective and reliable treatment for this disease.
📙 Uziza leaf may also possess antimalarial properties. Learn more about how it can benefit your health on this page.
11. May Support Healthy Skin
The vitamins found in bitter leaf soup, namely vitamins A, C, and E, are well known for their beneficial effects on skin health.
Let’s look at these vitamins individually and their roles in promoting healthy skin:
Vitamin A is essential for the repair and maintenance of skin tissue.
It aids in the production of new skin cells and the growth of healthy skin.
Vitamin A has also been used in treatments for acne, wrinkles, and other skin issues.
In addition, it is vital for the health of the epithelial tissues that line both the outer surface of the body and the inner cavities, acting as a barrier against harmful environmental factors.
This vitamin is a potent antioxidant that can neutralize free radicals in the skin.
Free radicals can cause cellular damage, leading to aging skin.
Vitamin C also plays a vital role in collagen synthesis.
Collagen is a protein that helps maintain the skin’s elasticity and strength.
By promoting collagen production, vitamin C can help keep the skin looking firm and youthful.
Vitamin E is another powerful antioxidant that helps protect the skin from oxidative damage.
It has been found to aid in reducing UV damage to the skin when applied topically.
While consuming Vitamin E through diet might not provide the same direct UV protection, it still contributes to overall skin health by combating harmful free radicals.
Besides bitter leaves, other ingredients in the soup, such as fish or meat, are sources of protein, which is necessary for the repair and regeneration of skin cells.
It’s important to note, however, that while consuming bitter leaf soup can contribute to your vitamin intake, it should be part of a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods to ensure you’re getting a wide range of nutrients necessary for overall skin health.
Additionally, other factors like hydration, adequate sleep, sun protection, and regular exercise also play crucial roles in maintaining healthy skin.
Always consult with a healthcare professional or dermatologist for personalized advice on skin health.
Bitter leaf soup, a traditional West African dish, brings a plethora of potential health benefits to the table.
Rich in essential nutrients such as fiber, vitamins, and minerals, it may promote digestive health, support a strong immune system, and contribute to overall skin health.
Its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties could help combat chronic diseases, while its potential to regulate blood sugar levels and aid in weight management make it a worthy addition to a balanced diet.
Intriguingly, the soup’s main ingredient, bitter leaf, has been used in traditional medicine and shows promise in scientific research for its antimicrobial and potential antimalarial properties.
However, while these potential benefits are promising, it’s important to remember that further research is necessary to fully understand the therapeutic potential of bitter leaf.
Moreover, consuming bitter leaf soup should complement, not replace, prescribed medications or other interventions recommended by healthcare professionals.
As with any food, the key to reaping the benefits of bitter leaf soup lies in incorporating it into a balanced, nutrient-rich diet paired with a healthy lifestyle.
After all, no single food alone can ensure good health, but a diverse diet full of colorful, natural foods certainly contributes to overall wellness.
😊 My favorite potential health benefit of bitter leaf soup is that it may have anti-inflammatory effects.
It’s nice to know that there are whole dishes that may be helpful for people like me who are struggling with arthritis.
However, I haven’t tried bitter leaf soup yet.
Which potential health benefit of bitter leaf soup on the list is your favorite?
There are also other dishes on which I’ve done some research for their potential health benefits.
If you find this article helpful, please share it with your family and friends.
Stay healthy and safe!
⛑️ Safety First
While the potential health benefits of bitter leaf soup are promising, it’s important to exercise caution and take certain safety measures:
1. Potential Health Benefits
The potential benefits of bitter leaf soup are just that: potential.
This means they are possibilities based on preliminary research and anecdotal evidence, not guaranteed results.
Scientific studies have supported some of these advantages, whereas other benefits are more based on customary use and individual testimonies.
2. Anecdotal Evidence
Many of the purported benefits of bitter leaf soup are based on anecdotal evidence and traditional use.
While these sources can provide valuable insights, they do not carry the same weight as well-controlled scientific studies.
3. Consult A Doctor
Before incorporating bitter leaf soup into your diet, especially if you plan to consume it as a remedy for a specific health condition, it is crucial to first discuss this with your doctor or another qualified healthcare professional.
They can provide guidance based on your personal health history and current medical condition.
4. Not For Everyone
While many people can safely consume bitter leaf soup, it might not be suitable for everyone.
Certain individuals, such as those with known allergies to bitter leaf or its constituents, pregnant and breastfeeding women, or those with specific medical conditions, may need to avoid or limit its consumption.
Always consult with a healthcare professional if you’re uncertain.
5. Do Your Own Research
While the information provided here is a good starting point, it’s crucial to conduct your own research and consult trustworthy sources when making decisions about your health.
Be cautious of sources that make exaggerated claims about the benefits of bitter leaf soup or any other single food or supplement.
Remember, while food can certainly contribute to good health, it should be part of a holistic approach that includes regular exercise, adequate sleep, stress management, and appropriate medical care.
Always consult with a healthcare professional before making significant changes to your diet or lifestyle, especially if you have existing health conditions or are taking medication.
|Potential Health Benefit
|High In Fiber
|Bitter leaf soup aids in digestion, helps prevent constipation, and promotes a healthy gut due to its high fiber content.
|Rich In Vitamins And Minerals
|The soup is rich in essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium, and calcium.
|The antioxidant properties of bitter leaf soup can help combat oxidative stress, potentially reducing the risk of chronic diseases.
|Aids In Blood Sugar Control
|Bitter leaf soup may help regulate blood sugar levels, which could be beneficial for people with diabetes.
|Bitter leaf soup may help manage conditions associated with inflammation due to its anti-inflammatory effects.
|The soup has antimicrobial properties that may help fight off certain bacterial, viral, and fungal infections.
|May Help Lower Cholesterol
|Consuming bitter leaf soup may help in reducing bad cholesterol levels, therefore promoting heart health.
|May Support Immune Function
|Bitter leaf soup provides protein, essential for a strong and healthy immune system, from ingredients like fish and meat.
|Helps With Weight Management
|Being high in fiber and low in calories, bitter leaf soup could be beneficial for weight management and satiety, reducing overall calorie intake.
|Potential Antimalarial Properties
|Bitter leaves used in the soup have been traditionally attributed with antimalarial properties, although more scientific research is needed to confirm this.
|May Support Healthy Skin
|The vitamin content of bitter leaf soup, particularly vitamins A, C, and E, may help improve skin texture and brightness.